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Clinical-radiological-pathological correlation of cavernous sinus hemangioma: Incremental value of diffusion-weighted imaging

In World Journal of Radiology
By: Mahajan A.
Contributor(s): Rao VRK [Corresponding author] | Anantaram G | Polnaya AM | Desai S | Desai P | Vadapalli R | Panigrahi M.
Material type: materialTypeLabelArticlePublisher: 2017Description: .Subject(s): Cavernous sinus | Cavernous sinus hemangioma | Diffusion weighted imaging | Magnetic resonance imaging In: World Journal of Radiology Vol.9, no.8, p. 330-338Summary: AIM: To elucidate the clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathological features of these lesions and asses the incremental value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in diagnosing them. METHODS: Fifteen consecutive patients (11 females and 4 males; mean age 40.93 years; age range 13-63 years) with cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSH) who underwent examination between November 2008 and May 2016 were included for the analysis. MRI, clinical and surgical findings of each patient was retrospectively reviewed. DWI were also analysed and mean-apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was calculated. Eleven patients underwent surgical removal of the lesion and 2 patients had biopsy only. Diagnosis of CSH was confirmed histologically in 13 patients. RESULTS: Eleven patients (73%) presented with headaches and 10 (66%) had cranial nerve involvement. Extra cavernous sinus extension was noted in 14 (94%). Surgery was performed in 13 (87%) and post-operative radiation was given to 4 (28%) patients. Thirteen patients remained asymptomatic on follow up. Three conspicuous imaging features were highly suggestive of the diagnosis: Lack of diffusion restriction (100%), homogeneous hyperintensity on T2 weighted image sequences (93.3%) and intense post-contrast enhancement (100%). The mean ADC was 1.82 × 10-3 ± 0.2186 cm2/s. CONCLUSION: T1-weighted hypointensity with homogeneous hyperintensity on T2-weighted sequences, intense enhancement and absence of hemosiderin within the lesion on GRE sequence favour the diagnosis. Facilitated diffusion on DWI differentiates CSH from other solid cavernous sinus lesions and significantly improves the diagnostic accuracy, a critical factor for planning surgery.
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Address for correspondence: drvedula@kimshospital.co.in

AIM:
To elucidate the clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathological features of these lesions and asses the incremental value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in diagnosing them.

METHODS:
Fifteen consecutive patients (11 females and 4 males; mean age 40.93 years; age range 13-63 years) with cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSH) who underwent examination between November 2008 and May 2016 were included for the analysis. MRI, clinical and surgical findings of each patient was retrospectively reviewed. DWI were also analysed and mean-apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was calculated. Eleven patients underwent surgical removal of the lesion and 2 patients had biopsy only. Diagnosis of CSH was confirmed histologically in 13 patients.

RESULTS:
Eleven patients (73%) presented with headaches and 10 (66%) had cranial nerve involvement. Extra cavernous sinus extension was noted in 14 (94%). Surgery was performed in 13 (87%) and post-operative radiation was given to 4 (28%) patients. Thirteen patients remained asymptomatic on follow up. Three conspicuous imaging features were highly suggestive of the diagnosis: Lack of diffusion restriction (100%), homogeneous hyperintensity on T2 weighted image sequences (93.3%) and intense post-contrast enhancement (100%). The mean ADC was 1.82 × 10-3 ± 0.2186 cm2/s.

CONCLUSION:
T1-weighted hypointensity with homogeneous hyperintensity on T2-weighted sequences, intense enhancement and absence of hemosiderin within the lesion on GRE sequence favour the diagnosis. Facilitated diffusion on DWI differentiates CSH from other solid cavernous sinus lesions and significantly improves the diagnostic accuracy, a critical factor for planning surgery.

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