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Altered fractionation radiotherapy combined with concurrent low-dose or high-dose cisplatin in head and neck cancer: A systematic review of literature and meta-analysis

In Oral Oncology
By: Szturz P [Corresponding author].
Contributor(s): Wouters K | Kiyota N | Tahara M | Prabhash K | Noronha V | Adelstein D | Vermorken JB.
Material type: materialTypeLabelArticlePublisher: 2018Description: .Subject(s): Cisplatin | Concurrent chemoradiotherapy | Head and neck cancer | Meta-analysis | Radiotherapy dose fractionation | Survival In: Oral Oncology Vol. 76, p. 52-60Summary: OBJECTIVES: Altered fractionation radiotherapy and concomitant chemoradiotherapy represent commonly used intensification strategies in the management of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA-SCCHN). This meta-analysis compares compliance, safety, and efficacy between two single-agent cisplatin schedules given concurrently with altered fractionation radiotherapy. METHODS: We systematically searched for prospective trials of patients with LA-SCCHN who received post-operative or definitive altered fractionation concurrent chemoradiotherapy. High-dose cisplatin once every three to four weeks (100 mg/m2, 2 doses) was compared with a weekly low-dose protocol (≤50 mg/m2, ≥4 doses). The primary outcome was overall survival. The secondary endpoints comprised treatment adherence, acute and late toxicities, and objective response rate. RESULTS: Twelve studies with 1373 patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy were included. Compared to the weekly low-dose cisplatin regimen, the three- to four-weekly high-dose cisplatin regimen improved overall survival (p=.0185), was more compliant with respect to receiving all planned cycles of cisplatin (71% versus 95%, p=.0353), and demonstrated less complications in terms of severe (grade 3-4) acute mucositis and/or stomatitis (75% versus 40%, p=.0202) and constipation (8% versus 1%, p=.0066), toxic deaths (4%, versus 1%, p=.0168), 30-day mortality (8% versus 3%, p=.0154), and severe late subcutaneous fibrosis (21% versus 2%, p<.0001). Overall and complete response rates were similar between both chemotherapy schedules. CONCLUSION: In chemoradiotherapy incorporating altered fractionation, two cycles of high-dose cisplatin with a three to four week interval are superior to weekly low-dose schedules. Further studies should identify those who might derive the greatest benefit from this intensified approach.
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Articles Articles Tata Memorial Hospital
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Address for correspondence: szturz@gmail.com.

OBJECTIVES:
Altered fractionation radiotherapy and concomitant chemoradiotherapy represent commonly used intensification strategies in the management of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA-SCCHN). This meta-analysis compares compliance, safety, and efficacy between two single-agent cisplatin schedules given concurrently with altered fractionation radiotherapy.

METHODS:
We systematically searched for prospective trials of patients with LA-SCCHN who received post-operative or definitive altered fractionation concurrent chemoradiotherapy. High-dose cisplatin once every three to four weeks (100 mg/m2, 2 doses) was compared with a weekly low-dose protocol (≤50 mg/m2, ≥4 doses). The primary outcome was overall survival. The secondary endpoints comprised treatment adherence, acute and late toxicities, and objective response rate.

RESULTS:
Twelve studies with 1373 patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy were included. Compared to the weekly low-dose cisplatin regimen, the three- to four-weekly high-dose cisplatin regimen improved overall survival (p=.0185), was more compliant with respect to receiving all planned cycles of cisplatin (71% versus 95%, p=.0353), and demonstrated less complications in terms of severe (grade 3-4) acute mucositis and/or stomatitis (75% versus 40%, p=.0202) and constipation (8% versus 1%, p=.0066), toxic deaths (4%, versus 1%, p=.0168), 30-day mortality (8% versus 3%, p=.0154), and severe late subcutaneous fibrosis (21% versus 2%, p<.0001). Overall and complete response rates were similar between both chemotherapy schedules.

CONCLUSION:
In chemoradiotherapy incorporating altered fractionation, two cycles of high-dose cisplatin with a three to four week interval are superior to weekly low-dose schedules. Further studies should identify those who might derive the greatest benefit from this intensified approach.

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