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Outcomes in non-metastatic treatment naive extremity osteosarcoma patients treated with a novel non-high dosemethotrexate-based, dose-dense combination chemotherapy regimen 'OGS-12'.

In European Journal of Cancer
By: Bajpai J [Corresponding author].
Contributor(s): Chandrasekharan A | Talreja V | Simha V | Chandrakanth MV | Rekhi B | Khurana S | Khan A | Vora T | Ghosh J | Banavali SD | Gupta S.
Material type: materialTypeLabelArticlePublisher: 2017Description: .Subject(s): Chemotherapy | Low and middle income countries (LMIC) | Non-high dose methotrexate (Non-HDMTX) | Novel ‘OGS-12’ protocol | Osteosarcoma In: European Journal of Cancer Vol. 85, p. 49-58Summary: Abstract Purpose High-dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based regimens are widely used in osteosarcoma. However, mandatory in-patient treatment with complex pharmacokinetic monitoring requirement precludes its use, especially in resource-constrained settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods All treatment naive consecutive patients of osteosarcoma were prospectively treated on a novel institutional regimen (named OGS-12) comprising of eight sequential doublets of the following drugs: doxorubicin, cisplatin and ifosfamide in four courses each, given in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. Data were prospectively collected on baseline characteristics, histological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), toxicity, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Between 2011 and 2014, 317 treatment naive patients with extremity osteosarcoma were seen, of whom 237 (75%) were non-metastatic. Majority had high tumour burden, with mean tumour size of 10.45 cm, high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) in 71% and 88% respectively. A significant number (34%) were nutritionally challenged. Two-hundred ten of 237 patients were analysable for histological response of which 58% had good response (viable cells ≤10%). At the median follow-up of 34.31 (2–60) months, in intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, the 5-year EFS and OS were 56% and 75% respectively; the same were 60% and 80% in per-protocol analysis. There was febrile neutropenia (FN) in 56%, grade 3/4 thrombocytopaenia in 22% and anaemia in 47% with two chemotoxic deaths. Ten percent of the patients had grade 3/4 diarrhoea and stomatitis and one patient developed grade 4 acute kidney injury requiring dialysis. Baseline SAP (per-protocol) for EFS and performance status (ITT) for OS were found to be independent variables. Histological response was an independent predictor for EFS and OS in both the analyses. Conclusions In treatment naive patients with non-metastatic osteosarcoma, OGS-12 protocol, a dose-dense, non-HDMTX-based, novel, economic and easy to administer regimen produces comparable outcomes to international standards, with acceptable toxicity and is worthy of wider clinical application.
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Articles Articles Tata Memorial Hospital
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Address for Corresponding author: dr_jyotibajpai@yahoo.co.in.

Abstract
Purpose
High-dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based regimens are widely used in osteosarcoma. However, mandatory in-patient treatment with complex pharmacokinetic monitoring requirement precludes its use, especially in resource-constrained settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Methods
All treatment naive consecutive patients of osteosarcoma were prospectively treated on a novel institutional regimen (named OGS-12) comprising of eight sequential doublets of the following drugs: doxorubicin, cisplatin and ifosfamide in four courses each, given in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. Data were prospectively collected on baseline characteristics, histological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), toxicity, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results
Between 2011 and 2014, 317 treatment naive patients with extremity osteosarcoma were seen, of whom 237 (75%) were non-metastatic. Majority had high tumour burden, with mean tumour size of 10.45 cm, high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) in 71% and 88% respectively. A significant number (34%) were nutritionally challenged. Two-hundred ten of 237 patients were analysable for histological response of which 58% had good response (viable cells ≤10%). At the median follow-up of 34.31 (2–60) months, in intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, the 5-year EFS and OS were 56% and 75% respectively; the same were 60% and 80% in per-protocol analysis. There was febrile neutropenia (FN) in 56%, grade 3/4 thrombocytopaenia in 22% and anaemia in 47% with two chemotoxic deaths. Ten percent of the patients had grade 3/4 diarrhoea and stomatitis and one patient developed grade 4 acute kidney injury requiring dialysis. Baseline SAP (per-protocol) for EFS and performance status (ITT) for OS were found to be independent variables. Histological response was an independent predictor for EFS and OS in both the analyses.

Conclusions
In treatment naive patients with non-metastatic osteosarcoma, OGS-12 protocol, a dose-dense, non-HDMTX-based, novel, economic and easy to administer regimen produces comparable outcomes to international standards, with acceptable toxicity and is worthy of wider clinical application.

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