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Clinicopathological features of 50 mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient endometrial carcinomas, tested by immunohistochemistry: A single institutional feasibility study, India

In Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
By: Rekhi B [Corresponding Author ].
Contributor(s): Menon S | Deodhar KK | Ghosh J | Chopra S | Maheshwari A.
Material type: materialTypeLabelArticlePublisher: 2020Description: .Subject(s): Endometrioid carcinoma | MMR deficient endometrial carcinoma | Microsatellite instability | Mismatch repair proteins | Uterine malignancy In: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology Vol. 47, p. 1515583.Summary: Abstract There are few comprehensive studies from Asia on clinicopathologic features of mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient endometrial carcinomas, including rarely from our country. One hundred and four cases of endometrial carcinomas were tested for four MMR proteins by immunohistochemistry. Among 50 MMR-deficient (MMRd) tumors(48%), age-range was 27-68 years(median = 53) and tumor size(n = 34) varied from 1.2-10 cm(average = 4.6). Lower uterine segment(LUS) was involved in 21/31 cases(67.7%). Histopathologically, all cases were endometrioid adenocarcinomas(EMACs), of FIGO grade 2(low-grade)(18 cases) and 3(high-grade)(32 cases), displaying de-differentiated, undifferentiated and lymphoepithelioma(LE)-like patterns, in 24 cases(48%). Tumor infiltration ≥ half of myometrium was seen in 30/44 cases (68.1%); lymphovascular emboli in 19/43 cases(44.1%); and lymph node metastasis in 7/22(31.8%) cases. Uncommonly, clear cell component(n = 2) and focal neuroendocrine differentiation (n = 2) were observed. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells showed paired loss of MLH1 and PMS2 in 33(66%) and MSH2 and MSH6 in 14(28%) cases, along with loss of MSH2 and PMS2, in two and a single case, respectively. Nine patients(18%) were treated for another cancer and 9/33(27.2%) disclosed familial history of cancer. MSH2 was the most frequently lost MMR protein in those cases. Additionally, tumor cells displayed ER positivity in 41/50 cases(82%), PR in 38/41cases(92.6%) and wild-type p53 staining in 24/28 cases(85.7%). Tumor with LE-pattern showed PDLI immunoexpression. Certain clinicopathologic features suggestive for MMRd associated ECs, such as relatively large-sized tumors, involving LUS; especially high-grade, infiltrative EMACs, with undifferentiated/de-differentiated, and LE-like patterns; showing deep muscle invasion, frequent PR immunoexpression and invariably, wild-type p53 immunostaining can be useful in screening cases of Lynch syndrome. This constitutes the first report on these tumors from our country.
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Address for Corresponding Author: rekhi.bharat@gmail.com

Abstract
There are few comprehensive studies from Asia on clinicopathologic features of mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient endometrial carcinomas, including rarely from our country. One hundred and four cases of endometrial carcinomas were tested for four MMR proteins by immunohistochemistry. Among 50 MMR-deficient (MMRd) tumors(48%), age-range was 27-68 years(median = 53) and tumor size(n = 34) varied from 1.2-10 cm(average = 4.6). Lower uterine segment(LUS) was involved in 21/31 cases(67.7%). Histopathologically, all cases were endometrioid adenocarcinomas(EMACs), of FIGO grade 2(low-grade)(18 cases) and 3(high-grade)(32 cases), displaying de-differentiated, undifferentiated and lymphoepithelioma(LE)-like patterns, in 24 cases(48%). Tumor infiltration ≥ half of myometrium was seen in 30/44 cases (68.1%); lymphovascular emboli in 19/43 cases(44.1%); and lymph node metastasis in 7/22(31.8%) cases. Uncommonly, clear cell component(n = 2) and focal neuroendocrine differentiation (n = 2) were observed. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells showed paired loss of MLH1 and PMS2 in 33(66%) and MSH2 and MSH6 in 14(28%) cases, along with loss of MSH2 and PMS2, in two and a single case, respectively. Nine patients(18%) were treated for another cancer and 9/33(27.2%) disclosed familial history of cancer. MSH2 was the most frequently lost MMR protein in those cases. Additionally, tumor cells displayed ER positivity in 41/50 cases(82%), PR in 38/41cases(92.6%) and wild-type p53 staining in 24/28 cases(85.7%). Tumor with LE-pattern showed PDLI immunoexpression. Certain clinicopathologic features suggestive for MMRd associated ECs, such as relatively large-sized tumors, involving LUS; especially high-grade, infiltrative EMACs, with undifferentiated/de-differentiated, and LE-like patterns; showing deep muscle invasion, frequent PR immunoexpression and invariably, wild-type p53 immunostaining can be useful in screening cases of Lynch syndrome. This constitutes the first report on these tumors from our country.

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